Ninad Clinic

Head and Neck Cancers

Head and neck cancer includes several types of cancer that usually start in the cells lining your mouth, throat (pharynx) or voice box (larynx). These cells are called squamous cells. Less commonly, head and neck cancers form in your sinuses or salivary glands.

Most head and neck cancers are classified as squamous cell carcinoma, after the cell that changes into a cancer cell.

What are the types of head and neck cancer?

Head and neck cancers include:

  • Oral cancer: Cancer that forms in your lips, tongue, gums, the lining of your cheeks and lips, the top and bottom of your mouth, or behind your wisdom teeth.
  • Oropharyngeal cancer: Cancer of the middle part of your throat (oropharynx). Tonsil cancer is the most common type of oropharyngeal cancer.
  • Hypopharyngeal cancer: Cancer of the bottom part of your throat (hypopharynx).
  • Laryngeal cancer: Cancer of your voice box (larynx), which contains your vocal cords.
  • Nasopharyngeal cancer: Cancer of the upper part of your throat (nasopharynx).
  • Salivary gland cancer: Cancer of your salivary glands, which produce saliva (spit).
  • Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer: Cancer that forms in the hollow area inside of your nose (nasal cavity) or the hollow spaces in the bones surrounding your nose (paranasal sinuses).


Head and neck cancer can be hard to diagnose because symptoms are often mild and can mimic less serious conditions like a cold or sore throat. A sore throat that doesn’t get better is the most common symptom of a head and neck cancer.

Symptoms include:

  • A persistent sore throat.
  • Frequent headaches.
  • Hoarseness or voice changes.
  • Pain when you chew or swallow.
  • Pain in your upper teeth.
  • Facial numbness or pain.
  • Neck pain that won’t go away.
  • Trouble breathing or speaking.
  • A lump in your throat, mouth or neck.
  • Persistent earaches or infections.
  • Nosebleeds, bloody saliva or phlegm.
  • A mouth or tongue sore that doesn’t heal.
  • Frequent sinus infections that don’t respond to antibiotics.
  • A white or red patch on your gums, tongue or inside of your mouth.
  • Swelling in your jaw, neck or side of your face (that may cause your dentures to fit poorly).


You can take steps to prevent most head and neck cancers. To protect yourself:

  • Quit tobacco. To reduce your risk of head and neck cancer, quit using all forms of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, pipes, snuff, dip and chewing tobacco).
  • Cut back on drinking. Reducing your alcohol intake or cutting it out can reduce your risk of these cancers.
  • Get the HPV vaccine. Gardasil 9® is the HPV vaccine approved in the U.S. It protects against several strains of HPV, including the ones that cause oropharyngeal cancer. It’s most effective in preventing HPV if you get it before you’re sexually active. Still, it may be beneficial up to age 45. Ask your healthcare provider if you would benefit from the vaccine.


NINAD CLINIC is one of the leading centers for the treatment of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat in Pune Maharashtra. Established by Dr. ASHWINI HANDAL in 2019, Serving with the highest standards of ethics and professionalism.

Contact us for more information or book an appointment